Quantum physics has the mystery of being complex and difficult to understand. In fact, Richard Feynman, who triumphed a Nobel prize winner for his work on quantum electrodynamics, said, “If you think you understand quantum physics, you don’t understand quantum physics.” And it’s kind of intimidate us because if he doesn’t understand it, what probability does the rest of us have of understanding it? Fortunately this repeat is a little misleading. We actually understand quantum physics very well in fact, arguably the most successful technical belief out there, and it has allowed us to invent technologies like computers, digital cameras and LED screens, lasers and nuclear power plants. You know, you don’t really want to build a nuclear power plant. If you don’t really understand how it use then quantum physics is the part of physics that describes the smallest things in the universe: molecules, atoms, subatomic particles, and things like that. Where things there don’t work the method we’re used to now. That’s cool because and everything around you is made of quantum physics, and this is really about how the whole universe actually labor. You’ve painted these protons and neutrons and electrons as corpuscles, but in quantum mechanics we describe everything as billows. By the mode, I use quantum physics and quantum mechanics interchangeably, they are the same thing. So instead of an electron that looks like this it should look something like this. This is called the motioned part, but this ripple perform is not a real physical brandish like a gesticulate on liquid or sound waves. A quantum waving is an abstract numerical description. To get real-world owneds such as the position or momentum of the electron, we would have to do plannings on this curve part so for its own position we take the amplitude and square it, which for this gesticulate would look something like this. This renders us something called a probability distribution that tells us you’re more likely to find the electron now than here. We’re actually valuing where the electron is, where an electron corpuscle dads up somewhere inside this region. So with quantum physics, we don’t know anything in infinite item. We can only predict the probabilities of things happening, and that seems to be a fundamental facet of the universe that was a totally out of the blue, cosmological determinism of classical physics, and that kind of thing comes from Newton. The gesticulate serve representation predicts what subatomic particles do very well. We got no idea whether this beckon function is real in the literal appreciation or not. Nobody has ever seen a quantum beckon because formerly we’ve set the electron, all we ever see is a point like an electron speck. So there is such a hidden quantum world where there are brandishes and then the world that we can see, which is where all the brandishes are turned into particles and the barrier between these macrocosms is the measurement. When “theyre saying”: criterion the wave capacity “collapses”, but we don’t really have any physical description of how the billow collapses. This breach in our knowledge we call the measurement problem, and “thats one” of the things Feynman was referring to when excerpting the other thing that’s puzzling is how exactly the electron can be represented in an persona. It looks just like a motion until you calibrate it, hence it is a particle, so what is it actually? This is known as wave-particle duality and here is an example in action: the far-famed doubled incision venture Imagine that you are shooting paintballs from a firearm at a wall that has two defects, you would expect to see two rows of decorate elapsing by and reaching the wall. But if you reduce all this to the size of electrons, you will see something completely different. You can fire one electron at a time at the cracks and they will show up on the back wall, but as you build up over go you’ll get a whole pattern of streaks, instead of merely two cliques, and that blueprint of blotches is called an interference pattern, and that’s something you merely accompany with waves. The thought is: the gesticulate – the electron goes through the pussies at the same time and then the billows from each aperture interfere with each other, and as you supplement the waves together you have a high probability that the electron will appear on the wall, but in the case of canceling the billows the probability is very low. So actually on the back wall, the highest probability of find the electron is in the middle of the opening, and then it goes down and then up again and down and up again, and that’s the obstruction motif. So when you liberate one electron after another they follow the probability distribution and this interference pattern starts to build up and that’s exactly what we see in experimentations. This shows that electrons react like gesticulates in this experiment and the question is what actually happens to this disbanded electron billow when the measurement is built? It seems to go from this disbanded tide to this localized particle, it seems to go from this disbanded brandish to this positioned particle but as I said, there is nothing in quantum mechanics that tells us how the beckon function crumbles and this applies not only to electrons, but to everything in The Universe So this double-slit experiment has severe consequences for our prototype of the universe and it was very surprising the first time it was done. Physicists are still grappling with this question today and have come up with countless readings of quantum mechanics to try to explain these results and please explain how it actually manipulates Well, back to the ripple capacity. Now we can use this painting to explain other features of quantum physics that you may have heard of so this is just a potential wavefunction of the electron, but there are many other functions like this for example. This means that the electron has a probability of being now and a probability of being now, and a very low probability of being in the middle.This is perfectly admissible in quantum physics and this is where the utterance “things can be in two neighbourhoods at once” comes from. This is known as superposition which comes from the fact that this waving can be done by adding, or superimposing these two motions. The term superposition precisely implies the combination of billows and we’ve already seen that in the double slit experiment, and it’s not really a very special phenomenon. You can even realize the superposition by drop Two pebbles in the pond where the reverberations now overlap to intertwine. Suppose there are two motions – two electrons that meet. Their tides interfere with each other and become desegregated. Mathematically, this means that we now have a single wave function that describes everything about the two electrons and is intimately linked, even though they are they are moving away from each other. And a measurement on one particle, like asses whether it’s rotating up or down now correlates with measurements on the other, even if it’s moving billions of miles away.Einstein was disagreeable with that hypothesi because if you calibrated one of the specks now, you know right away what it would be. The other one is on it even if it is billions of miles away, and this is a kind of puff faster than light communication which is not allowed by the theory of relativity. But it is about to change that you can’t really help this to communicate information, because the metrics give you random answers but the facts of the case that they are correlated means that there is a link in some way that extends over that length. This delocalization is called quantum tunneling. Quantum tunneling is where specks have the potential to move through impediments, virtually admitting things like electrons to pass through walls when the movement gathering matches a railing that immensely degrades the barrier, but if the barrier is narrow-minded enough, the waving part is on the side The other which represents the corpuscle might be there when you make a measurement. In fact, the only reason you’re alive is due in part to the quantum tunneling in the sun that procreates the sunlight rise. Normally protons oppose one another, but they have a small probability of quantum tunneling with each other which is what turns hydrogen into helium and releases synthesi power All life on Earth exists because of energy from the sun, except for life around hydrothermal ducts Now we turn to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. I said the start is that this gesticulate function includes all the information like the position and momentum of the electron, “were supposed to” do some math on it. The stance is determined by the amplitude or height of the beckon and the momentum is given by the wavelength of the brandish but for this specific wave the position makes us the probability distribution, so we don’t know exactly where the electron is. Also there is uncertainty in momentum because this wave is made of many different wavelengths but we can reduce this uncertainty, let’s get a wave that has only one wavelength so it is a sine ripple. Now we know the exact momentum because the wavelength has one value but look at the position. There is an equal probability of an electron being received anywhere in the universe. Well let’s do the opposite, let’s make a wave that only has one position Now we know exactly where the electron is, but what is the wavelength of the brandish? Now the wavelength is very uncertain. Basically, exclusively a sine waving gives you exact force and any wave “thats really not” a perfect sine movement, you have to build different sine ripples, and each of these multi-wave sine waves has a different wavelength and so you will have a located of various types of possible costs of the particle’s impetu This is Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, You are unable know certain things accurately but not everything. Either you have a specific value of momentum and you don’t know anything about primacy, or you know position well, but you don’t know anything about impetu, or “youre in” an intermediate position. This is not a limit to our measuring instrument, but rather a fundamental quality of the universe! And ultimately, where did the reputation “Quantum” come from? Well, quantum is a bundle of something like a piece of something, and one of the first quantum impacts that parties saw were atomic spectra where atoms give off specific separate powers it acts like this. Imagine a string tied at both ends, like a guitar string. If you draw it, particular motions can exist only because the ends are tied, in this case we say the wavelengths are quantified to certain values. The same thing happens if you tie the two aspirations of the series together, because the waves must accord, they can only vibrate in certain inhibited paths. This is what happens to the electron in the atom. The curve – the electron is bound to the atom is quantified to specific wavelengths, short wavelengths have high-pitched vigour and long wavelengths have lower vigor This is why the illuminate emitted by the atom is like a barcode, because each light-colored clique corresponds to the electron leap from a beckon with lower energy high to low-toned force, and at the same time radiates a quantum photon where reference is done likewise the light-colored from the atom comes quantified into discrete exertion containers Well, that’s all the basics of quantum physics, here are some technical notes that are not necessary to know, but now turn off the screen If you’re interested in a little more scientific detail to put together the topic. In quantum physics, objects are described with wave roles but when we measure them, what we see as specks, so this leads to wave-particle duality, as well as the measurement problem. And the outcome of that this motion purpose are the quantum phenomena of superposition, intrigue, quantum tunneling, Heisenberg’s indecision principle, and the quantum determination of energy. So if you are familiar with these things, you’ll have a good basic understanding of quantum physics. Irrespective of their stature, I guess quantum mechanics isn’t too difficult for most people to get at the basics. In the past, I’ve relied on analogies to try to explain it, but here I simply described what’s actually going on and I think it might be more useful to me, the peculiar thing about quantum physics is that on the one pas, it’s incredibly accurate and predictive, but it also has Giant punctures in that are like a scaling problem that we don’t understand. So we can ask, are we actually going to understand quantum physics or is it really an idea that’s too abstract for our human brains to understand.Translated by: Shwan HamidTwitter: @shwan_hamid.